5G is the 5th generation technology for mobile networks and it is much faster than previous generations of wireless technology. 5G also provides greater capacity, and it allows to designed to connect virtually everyone and everything together including machines, objects and devices. 5G is intended to significantly reduce latency while the connectivity and capacity offered by 5G is opening up the potential for new innovative services.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) announced an International Mobile Telecommunications-2020 (IMT-2020) vision as future IMT systems should support the enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) use case, emerging use cases with a variety of applications such as Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) and Ultra-reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC).
Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB)
A progression to the existing 4G LTE services with improved performance and seamless user experience, up to 10Gbps peak throughput. It will be the first phase of 5G services to be commercially available worldwide. The usage scenario covers data-driven use cases requiring high data rates across a wide coverage area, like real-time traffic alerts, high-speed internet access, streaming real-time video or playing games involving 3D 4K video.
Ultra-reliable and Low Latency Communications (uRLLC)
This use case has stringent requirements capabilities but aim towards to cater the demand in digital industry focusing on optimizing large amount of data and ultra-responsive connections in less than 1ms latency. Some example includes wireless control of industrial manufacturing or production processes, remote medical surgery, distribution automation in a smart grid, transportation safety, etc.
Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC)
A communication paradigm connecting a large number of devices typically transmitting a relatively low cost device, low volume of non-delay-sensitive data with a long battery life. These future applications target in developing a digital society services such as smart city and smart agriculture.
Low-band spectrum can also be defined as a sub-1GHz spectrum which support widespread coverage across urban, sub urban and rural areas, wall penetration as well help to support Internet of Things (IoT) services. It’s the primary band used by carriers for LTE and introduction of 5G globally, and bandwidth is nearly exhausted. However, with the advantage of low-band spectrum being offered, the drawback is the peak data speeds will only top out around 100Mbps.
Mid-band spectrum offers faster speeds, higher capacity and lower latency than low-band. However, it fail to penetrate buildings as effectively as low-band spectrum. The expectation peak speeds up to 1Gbps on mid-band spectrum.
High-band spectrum which provides additional capacity and delivers highest performance for 5G is known as called milimetre Wave (mmWave). MmWave can increase the data bandwidth available over smaller, densely populated areas. It will be a key part of 5G in many cities, powering data in sports stadiums, malls and convention centres, as well basically anywhere data congestion might be a problem. However, the main drawback of high-band spectrum is that it has low coverage area and may not be able to penetrate buildings.
Benefits of 5G
Speed: 5G will offer faster data speeds that is extraordinary. However, the actual speeds would not be the same. The specification calls for user download speeds of 100Mbps and upload speeds of 50Mbps.
Latency: The time taken for data travel from one point to another will be fast and as low as 4 milliseconds in ideal circumstances while 1 millisecond for use cases that demand the utmost speed, e.g. remote surgeries.
Efficiency: Radio interfaces should be energy efficient when in use, and drop into low-energy mode when not in use. Ideally, a radio should be able to switch into a low-energy state within 10 milliseconds when no longer in use.
Spectral efficiency: The optimised use of spectrum or bandwidth, so that the maximum amount of data can be transmitted with less transmission errors. 5G has slightly improved spectral efficiency over LTE.
Connection density: 5G will be able to support more connected devices compared to LTE.
Differences between 4G and 5G
5G technology can provide higher data speeds with less delay than 4G technology. Some 5G services will provide coverage areas with data speeds up to a hundred times faster with an almost instantaneous response time. For example, it can take almost six minutes to download a feature-length movie with 4G. With 5G, the same movie can be downloaded in as little as 15 seconds.
Technically speaking, current 4G speeds are approximately 12-36 megabytes per second (Mbps), while 5G services are expected to support speeds of up to 300 Mbps or greater.
Below are several reasons why 5G is better than 4G:
1. 5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G.
While 4G LTE focused on delivering much faster mobile broadband services than 3G, 5G is designed to be a unified, more capable platform that not only elevates mobile broadband experiences, but also supports new services such as mission-critical communications and the massive IoT. 5G can also natively support all spectrum types (licensed, shared, unlicensed) and bands (low, mid, high), a wide range of deployment models (from traditional macro-cells to hotspots), and new ways to interconnect (such as device-to-device and multi-hop mesh).
2. 5G uses spectrum better than 4G.
5G is also designed to get the most out of every bit of spectrum across a wide array of available spectrum regulatory paradigms and bands—from low bands below 1 GHz, to mid bands from 1 GHz to 6 GHz, to high bands known as millimeter wave (mmWave).
3. 5G is faster than 4G.
5G can be significantly faster than 4G, delivering up to 20 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps) peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per- second (Mbps) average data rates.
4. 5G has more capacity than 4G.
5G is designed to support a 100x increase in traffic capacity and network efficiency.
5. 5G has lower latency than 4G.
5G has significantly lower latency to deliver more instantaneous, real-time access: a 10x decrease in end-to-end latency down to 1ms.
Benefits for Industry
As 5G technologies are incorporated across the industries, it is possible to witness impacts such as increased access to education and healthcare expertise, increased access to the internet, better and efficient driving experience and many other benefits.
Among the first few sectors to experience the better quality, improved and increased in productivity are:
Several of the use cases introduced in the study may result in qualitative improvements in the healthcare sector. Expected benefits include increased accessibility and access to services, improved overall health of the population and a reduction of healthcare costs
Qualitative impacts in the transportation vertical may bring a number of benefits to people and societies, such as increased mobility and autonomy, increased road safety, and shorter commute times.
There are high expectations for the impact of 5G networks to expand access to educational resources, and in particular to high quality educational resources. Such benefits may be grouped into two broad categories: increased availability and access to educational opportunities and increased quality of education, including for educators
While 5G networks can be deployed in lower bands like the C-band, they are expected to provide the higher-capacity, lower latency connectivity with the aid of mmWave spectrum, which may enable significant enhancements in communications for public-safety uses. Potential benefits include enhanced day-today safety for citizens stemming from increased capabilities and tools available to first responders and increased protection during disaster and emergency situations.